After defining the experimental groups, students are taught in argumentation components, utilizing the courseware. In addition T-graphical group learned how to use Belvedere software in developing argumentation. Control group did not have any treatment. Then, groups in textual treatment are asked to develop an argumentation paper, considering educational problems. The groups in T-Graphical treatment were asked to develop their argumentation first in Belvedere, then to organize as a paper. After being sure that the students understood what they were expected to do, they were taught directly on the theory; then they were asked to study in their fixed group to write the paper about the theory considering educational applications. Teachers met with each group to guide students in selecting a problem, thinking alternatives or overcoming obstacles such as disagreements or finding resources. However, teacher did not interfere with the direct decisions of study groups. Following 9 weeks experimental groups submitted three persuasive writing. T-Graphical groups also submitted three Belvedere map of their argumentation. No treatment applied to the control group. They were only taught about learning theories. They did not submit any assignment.4. Analysis
Pre-argumentation and post-argumentation questions are given to the all groups. The responses given to the pre-argumentation and post-argumentation questions analyzed to have the scores on argumentation structures. However, statistical differences found between experimental and control groups in some argumentation structures even in the pre-argumentation scores.
Basic limitation of nonequivalent control-group design is that there is a possibility the meaningful difference found in post-test might be the result of pre-test differences and not the result of treatment. To overcome this limitation statistically covariance analysis is suggested (Borg and Gall, 1989). Following this suggestion, covariance analysis is selected as analysis technique to overcome the limitation of the research design. Covariating pre-argumentation scores for the post argumentation scores, researchers looked for the meaningful differences which might be a result of experimental treatment. 5. Results
After holistic scoring, each paper was coded again for each component in analytic rubrics by two coders. Covariating the pre-argumentation structures, meaningful differences are found among the post-argumentation level of experimental groups and a control group. Results of ANCOVA and Bonferroni test analysis on claim is given in Table 6.
Context. You need to provide your readers with some backgroundabout the issues your paper deals with. The needed context will vary dependingon your target audience. In a very short, simple argumentative paper thiscan sometimes be given in the introductory paragraph, prior to your thesisstatement; but typically you will need one or more context paragraphs afteryour thesis paragraph, sometimes before your reasons and counter-argumentparagraphs, sometimes interspersed among them.
The Six Parts of the Argumentative Research Paper
There are various good and effective ways to organize or structure anargumentative paper, but there are two general principles you should follow.Oneis that whatever your overall organizational scheme is, it should be prettyobvious to a reader. To make it obvious it is helpful to use signal phrasessuch as "Second . . .," "Finally . . .," "In response to the first objection. . .," and the like. In longer papers it may be advisable to describe,in a short paragraph or a sentence or two, how the rest of your paper isorganized. The second general principle is that you should clearlystate your overall thesis early in the paper, before you start providingyour support for it. Argumentative papers should not be like mystery novelswith surprise endings! Here are several example general organizationalapproaches (there are others); each part (thesis, context, etc.) is oftena paragraph, or sometimes more in a longer paper.
How to begin an argumentative paper
: This outline can help guide you through a series of questions. You can highlight-and-print this outline, but it's not a fill-in-the-blank outline; use it as a guide. Many of my students like to use this outline for both research papers and argumentative papers.
An argumentation paper must provide evidence to support its claims.