161. Svernik H. Media on the Eve of the Third Millenium. Comparing Revolutions in Communication. // Changing Media & Communication Concepts, Technologies & Ethics in Global & National Perspectives. Moscow, 1998 pp.46-70.
Comparative revolutions (compare the Haitian and French Revolutions
"Comparing Revolutions: Does Civil Society Really Play a Role? The Arab Spring, Eastern Europe 1989, and The Democratic Revolution in Latin America" with Denis Rolland
Comparing revolutions to “forced murder” (ibid., vol
Sept. 17: Comparing Revolutions: Refining Our Framework
Reading: , Revolutions in the AtlanticWorld: A Comparative History
Comparing Revolutions *––Kandil, Hazem
During the last decade time-depth recorders (TDRs) have been deployed on a majority of pinniped species as a means of studying their diving behavior and foraging ecology. Our aim in the present paper is to: (1) present the theoretical framework for a calibration method for flow-driven swim-speed recorders, and (2) render this method easily useable with large TDR data sets by developing an automatic computerized calibration program for general use. The method involves comparing revolutions per minute (rpm) from the turbine of a swim-speed TDR with changes in depth measured by the instrument's calibrated pressure transducer. The subject collects the data for calibrating the instrument it bears, minimizing errors having to do with variation in animal size, shape (i.e., interindividual and interspecific differences) and instrument position. We used a total of 46 diving records from two species of pinnipeds: Northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, from Ano Nuevo, California (n = 33), and Hooker sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri, from Enderby Island, New Zealand (n = 13). The method we have described constitutes a fast and conceptually simple way of calibrating swim-speed recorders that reduces errors due to variation in subject size or position of the instrument on the animal. It has been tested in both phocids and otariids, which have very different swimming modes. When used prudently, this method should facilitate the acquisition of new information on foraging behavior, diving energetics, and the development of diving.