The inescapable images: gender and advertising ..

In both single gender advertisements and advertisements featuring women and men, the structural (internal) model estimates revealed that had statistically significant total and direct effects on and but not on . Therefore, null hypotheses H1 and H3 were rejected (i.e. influences both the and the use of ). On the other hand, H2 could not be rejected, suggesting that does not influence (not surprising given the non-significant indicator variables).

BARTHEL, D. (1988). Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

A ground breaking study on gender and advertising in Southern Africa, conducted by Gender Links, has revealed that women are more likely to be seen than heard; they predominate in billboards and still images and hardly feature in voice-overs; and it is in these still images that we see blatant stereotypes at their worst.

A systematic review of gender and advertising studies: ingentaconnect

Read the full-text online edition of Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising (1988). Consumption and advertising are key to understanding contemporary society ? they mediate how we think about ourselves and others, form social structures, and they organise resources and ideas. This course introduces a range of theoretical perspectives on consumer culture and advertising and includes various case studies. Topics include: commodities and exchange; shopping and identity; class and lifestyle; advertising agencies' gender and advertising images; anti-consumerism and protest.

A systematic review of gender and advertising studies

Consumption and advertising are critical in the understanding of contemporary society – they mediate how we think about ourselves and others and how we form social structures. This course introduces a range of theoretical perspectives on consumer culture and advertising and includes various case studies. Topics include: commodities and exchange; shopping and identity; class and lifestyle; advertising agencies’ gender and advertising images; anti-consumerism and protest.

Sex Sells: Gender and Advertising in America (10-12 credits)


Gender and Advertising

It is quite evident that gender, sexuality and advertising are all directly linked with one another. The construction of gender, which is where a girl learns to be a girl and where a boy learns to be a boy depending on what society has taught us about each of the genders is concurrent with the construction of the consumer, which is what a female should be wanting to buy to increase her femininity and what a male should be wanting to buy to increase his masculinity. This is one of the main reasons for advertising and gender to be so closely linked to one another. In society there are many ways to identify with being male or female. One way we identify with being part of the two genders is through materialistic items. We buy what society has taught us will make us a man or a woman.
In advertising they are constantly communicating through gender messages to sell their product. The product can be as feminine as a woman’s bra or as masculine as mans underwear or something so neutral (meaning either gender can benefit from the product) like cigarettes or alcohol but the advertisers always use gender messages to identify with their target audience. It is easy to use gender to sell products because for something to be appealing it must appeal to one group or the other and it is easiest and the broadest thing in our society to differentiate between men and women. In Barrie Thornes article she continuously discusses the idea that girls and boys live in two separate spheres. “Differences tend to be exaggerated.” (Pg.201) In a recent edition of the magazine Cosmopolitan, I found an advertisement for dish detergent that really caught my eye. Although it is just an ad for dish detergent, I found it quite interesting that it was making an appeal specifically towards females. I felt that it was making an appeal specifically towards females because the only character featured in the advertisement is a woman therefor... Key Words: Advertising ethics; Ethics of advertising professionals;Ethics of students; Gender and advertising ethics; Length of employmentand advertising ethics