With the return of the Austrians in 1815, the city completed its cultural and economic success. Commercial and financial activities made Milan Italy's main business centre. Furthermore, thanks to the completion of many irrigation projects coordinated by the government, Milanese agriculture was among the most modern and best developed in Europe. At the same time, the city became the largest publishing and cultural centre of Italy with the involvement of figures including , and . Milan developed Neoclassical works in both the private and public domains: firstly as a result of the strong link between the Enlightenment and Neoclassical art, especially publicly funded architecture,
How Neoclassical art got its name
One of the earliest Neoclassicists and one of the foremost painters of his generation in Italy was Batoni. His style blends Rococo with Neoclassical elements, and his work includes classical subject pieces as well as portraits in contemporary dress, the sitter posing with antique statues and urns and sometimes amid ruins. The painter Domenico Corvi was influenced by both Batoni and Mengs and was important as the teacher of three of the leading Neoclassicists of the next generation: Giuseppe Cades, Gaspare Landi, and Vincenzo Camuccini. These artists worked mostly in Rome, the first two making reputations as portraitists, Landi especially being noted for good contemporary groups.
Rome was indeed the city where the principal Italian painters of this period were most active. One such was Felice Giani, whose many decorations include Napoleonic palaces there and elsewhere in Italy (especially Faenza) and in France.
Important painters outside Rome include Andrea Appiani the Elder in Milan, who became Napoleon's official painter and executed some of the best frescoes in northern Italy. He was also a fine portraitist. One of his pupils was Giuseppe Bossi. Another leading Lombard painter was Giovanni Battista dell'Era, whose encaustic paintings were bought by Catherine the Great and others. Other good examples of Neoclassical decorative schemes outside Rome are in Florence (Pitti Palace) by the Florentine Luigi Sabatelli and by Pietro Benvenuti, who was born at Arezzo, and in Venice (Palazzo Reale) by Giuseppe Borsato, who was born in that city and was both painter and architect. Another painter of the time, though only given to a mildly Neoclassical style, was Domenico Pellegrini, born near Bassano, who traveled widely. The principal Neoclassicists in the south were the Sicilians Giuseppe Velasco, who did important frescoes in palaces in Palermo, and Giuseppe Errante.
The main Danish painter who produced original Neoclassical works was Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard. Other Danish painters include Abildgaard's and David's pupil Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg. David was very influential in Brussels, where he retired late in life. The paintings of his Belgian pupil François-Joseph Navez, for example, are pure French Neoclassicism. The two main Neoclassical artists in The Netherlands were Humbert de Superville and Jan Willem Pieneman. The principal Neoclassicist in Spain was José de Madrazo y Agudo.
Neoclassical Art and Architecture - P. Serenbetz
BY ELIZABETH LUNDAY. The Neoclassical period coincided with the French Revolution, the rise of Napoleon, and the Napoleonic Wars. These were exciting times, and several artists found themselves drawn to politics like moths to a flame—only, not surprisingly, to get burned. Here are two examples of Neoclassical artists' unfortunate encounters with politics:
Art History at Loggia | Exploring Neoclassical Art and Artists